Geoffrey W. Hoffmann, Biophysics





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  1. Hoffmann, G. W. “Recent Developments in Immune Network Theory including a concept for an HIV Vaccine”, arXiv: 0812.4467v2 (2008).
  2. Hoffmann, G. W. "Immune Network Theory" (2008).
  3. Hoffmann, G. W. "Perception and recognition in a neural network theory in which neurons exhibit hysteresis", arXiv: 0712.2854 (2007).
  4. Bourinbaiar, A. S., Jirathitikal, V., Hoffmann, G. W. and Lu, N.-Q, "AIDS vaccines and immunotherapy of infertility", National Journal of Andrology, 11, 163-169 (2005). 
  5. Hoffmann, G. W. "Proteomic analyser with applications to diagnostics and vaccines", Journal of Theoretical Biology, 228, 459-465 (2004).
  6. Hoffmann, G.W., "A Nanosecond Temperature Jump Apparatus", The Review of Scientific Instruments, 42, 1643-47 (1971).
  7. ENTWICKLUNG EINER SCHNELLEN TEMPERATUR-SPRUNG-ANLAGE UND IHRE ANWENDUNG AUF KOOPERATIVE BASENPAARUNG Von der Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät Carolo Wilhemina zu Braunschweig zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.) genehmigte Dissertation von Geoffrey William Hoffmann aus Tarrington (Australien) (1972).
  8. Pörschke, D., Hoffmann, G.W. and Senear, A., "Double Helical Complex Formed from a Polynucleotide and a Complementary Monomer", Nature New Biology, 242, 45-46 (1973).
  9. Hoffmann, G.W. and Pörschke, D., "Cooperative Nonenzymic Base Recognition: Thermodynamics of the Helix-Coil Transition of Monomer-Polymer Double Helix", Biopolymers 12, 1611-1623 (1973).
  10. Hoffmann, G.W. and Pörschke, D., "Cooperative Nonenzymic Base Recognition: Kinetics of the Binding of a Base Monomer to a Complementary Polynucleotide Template", Biopolymers, 12, 1625-1633 (1973).
  11. Hoffmann, G.W., "Chemical Relaxation of Cooperative Binding to Linear Polymers" Biopolymers, 12, 1633- 1638 (1973).
  12. Chuang, T.J., Hoffmann, G.W. and Eisenthal, K.B., "Picosecond Studies of the Cage Effect and Collision Induced Predissociation of Iodine in Liquids", Chemical Physical Letters, 25, 201-205 (1974).
  13. Hoffmann, G.W., "On the Origin of the Genetic Code and the Stability of the Translation Apparatus", Journal of Molecular Biology, 86, 349-362 (1974).
  14. Hoffmann, G.W., "The Stochastic Theory of the Origin of the Genetic Code", for Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 26, 123-144 (1975) (H. Eyring, Ed.).
  15. Hoffmann, G.W., " A Theory of Regulation and Self-Nonself Discrimination in an Immune Network", European Journal of Immunology, 5, 638-647 (1975).
  16. Hoffmann, G.W., "Incorporation of a Non-specific T Cell Dependent Helper Factor into a Network Theory of the Regulation of the Immune Response", in "Theoretical Immunology", G.I. Bell, A.S. Perelson and G.H. Pimbley (eds.) Marcel Dekker, N.Y., (1978) pp. 571-602.
  17. Hoffmann, G.W., "Mathematical Modelling of a Network Theory of Self- Regulation in the Immune System" in Proceedings of the 1978 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control. p. 740-745, IEEE Control Systems Society, 1978.
  18. Hoffmann, G.W., "A Mathematical Model of the Stable States of a Network Theory of Self-Regulation" in Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, vol. 32, (C. Bruni et al., eds.) pp. 239-257 Springer-Verlag (1979).
  19. Hoffmann, G.W., "Das Immunsystem", Chemie in Unsere Zeit 13, 1-10 (1979).
  20. Hoffmann, G.W., "On Network Theory and H-2 Restriction", in Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology, (N. Warner, Ed.), vol. 11, 185-226 (1980).
  21. Hoffmann, G.W., "On the `Intelligence' of Antigen-specific Receptors from a Network Point of View" in "The Strategy of Immune Regulation", E. Sercarz and A.J. Cunningham, Eds. Academic Press, New York, 1980, pp. 401-403.
  22. Hoffmann, G.W., "On Network Theory, Ly Phenotypes and Connectivity" in "The Immune System, Festschrift in Honour of Niels Kaj Jerne, on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday" (I. Lefkovits and C. Steinberg, Eds.) Karger, Basel, 1981, vol. I, pp. 28-34.
  23. Gunther, N. and Hoffmann, G.W. "Qualitative Dynamics of a Network Model of Regulation of the Immune System: A Rationale for the IgM to IgG Switch", Journal of Theoretical Biology, 94, 815-855 (1982).
  24. Hoffmann, G.W. "The Application of Stability Criteria in Evaluating Network Regulation Models", in Regulation of Immune Response Dynamics, C. DeLisi and J. Hiernaux (Eds.), CRC Press 1982, pp. 137-162.
  25. Hoffmann, G.W. and Cooper-Willis, A. "Symmetry, Complexity and Stability in Immune System Network Theory". In Mathematical Modelling in Immunology and Medicine, G.I. Marchuk and L.N. Belykh, (eds.), North Holland Press, Amsterdam, 1983, pp. 31-42.
  26. Cooper-Willis, A. and Hoffmann, G.W. "Symmetry of Effector Function in the Immune System Network", Mol. Immunol.,20, (8), 865-870 (1983).
  27. Buican, T.N. and Hoffmann, G.W. "Immunofluorescent Flow Cytometry in N Dimensions: The Multiplex Labelling Approach", Cell Biophysics, 7, 129-156 (1985).
  28. Buican, T.N. and Hoffmann, G.W. "An Automated Device for the Preparation of Complex Reaction Mixtures: The Immunofluorescence Tomograph", Cell Biophysics, 7, 157-175 (1985).
  29. Singhai, R., Hoffmann, G.W., and Levy, J.G., "Abrogation and Reconstitution of Non-Responsiveness: A Correlation with High Network Connectivity" Eur. J. Immunol. 15, 526-529, 1985.
  30. Hoffmann, G.W., Levy J.G. and Nepom, G.T. "On Paradoxes and Progress in Science", Preface to Paradoxes in Immunology, (Hoffmann, G.W., Levy, J.G. and Nepom, G.T., Editors), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1986
  31. Hoffmann, G.W. "The Smell of H-2", Chapter 9 in "Paradoxes in Immunology", Hoffmann, G.W., Levy, J.G., and Nepom, G.T. (Eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 111-114, 1986.
  32. Hoffmann, G.W. and Kilburn, D.G. "Does Network Theory Tell Us What to Expect?", Commentary on "Idiotypic Networks in Tumor Immunity", by G. Nepom and K. A. Nelson, in "Paradoxes in Immunology", Hoffmann, G.W., Levy, J.G. and Nepom, G.T. (Eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 184-185, 1986.
  33. Hoffmann, G.W. "Another Paradox", Commentary on "T Cell Regulation Without Clonal Selection by Antigen? Polygamous Suppressor Cells and Monogamous Helper Cells at Higher Frequencies" by I. Melchers and K. Eichmann. In "Paradoxes in Immunology", Hoffmann, G.W., Levy, J.G., and Nepom, G.T. (Eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 149-150, 1986.
  34. Hoffmann, G.W. and Hraba, T., "The Structure of Mathematical Immunology" in "Immunology and Epidemiology" (G.W. Hoffmann and T. Hraba, Editors) in the series "Lecture Notes in Biomathematics" (S. Levin, Series editor), vol. 65, pp. 2-6 Springer-Verlag (1986).
  35. Hoffmann, G.W., "A Neural Network Model Based on the Analogy with the Immune System", J. Theoret. Biol., 122, 33-67, 1986.
  36. Hoffmann, G.W., Benson, M.W., Bree, G.M. and Kinahan, P. E. "A Teachable Neural Network Based on an Unorthodox Neuron" Physica22D, 233-246, 1986.
  37. Hoffmann, G. W. and M. W. Benson, "Neurons with Hysteresis Form a Network that can Learn Without any Changes in Synaptic Connection Strengths". In "Neural Networks for Computing", J. Denker, Ed., American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings vol. 151 pp. 219-226, 1986.
  38. Hoffmann, G.W., "A Response to Cohn's Criticism of Network Theory", Ann. Inst. Pasteur 137D, 443-448, 1986.
  39. Hoffmann, G. W. "A Critique of the Kaufman-Urbain-Thomas Immune System Network Theory". J. Theoret. Biol.,129, 355-357, 1987.
  40. Hoffmann, G.W. "A Theory of War and a Strategy for Peace", Bulletin of Peace Proposals 18, 93-98, 1987.
  41. Hoffmann, G. W. "On I-J, a network centre pole and AIDS. In"The Semiotics of Cellular Communication in the Immune System" (E. Sercarz, F. Celada, N. A. Mitchison and T. Tada, Eds.) Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988, pp. 257-271.
  42. Hoffmann, G. W. "Neurons with Hysteresis?" In press, in "Computer Simulation in Brain Science", R. Coterill, Ed., Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 74-87.
  43. Hoffmann, G. W., Kion, T. A., Forsyth, R. B., Soga, K. G. and Cooper-Willis, A. "The N-Dimensional Network". In "Theoretical Immunology, Part Two", A. S. Perelson, Ed., Santa Fe Institute Series "Studies in the Science of Complexity", Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 291-319.
  44. Stolorz P. and Hoffmann, G. W. "Learning by Selection using Energy Functions", in press, in "Systems with Learning and Memory Abilities", J. Delacour and J. C. S. Levy, Eds., Elsevier, North Holland 1988, pp. 437-452.
  45. Grant, M., Kion, T. A., Forsyth, R. B., and Hoffmann, G. W. "IDS, aIDS and AIDS" in "Cellular Basis of Immune Modulation", J. G. Kaplan and D. R. Green, eds., 1989, A. R. Liss, Inc., New York, pp. 481-484.
  46. Hoffmann, G. W., Grant M. and Kion, T. A. "Is AIDS Provoked Autoimmunity?" Canadian Research,21, No. 6, pp. 16-23, Sept. 1988.
  47. Grant, M. D., Weaver, M. S., Tsoukas, C., and Hoffmann, G. W.: "Distribution of Antibodies against Denatured Collagen in AIDS Risk Groups and Homosexual AIDS Patients Suggests a Link between Autoimmunity and the Immunopathogenesis of AIDS" J. Immunol., 144, 1241-1250, 1990.
  48. Forsyth, R. B. and Hoffmann, G. W. "A study of auto-antiidiotypes to BSA," J. Immunol., 145, 215-223, 1990.
  49. Hoffmann, G. W. "The Immune System: A neglected challenge for network theorists." Proc. of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Portland Oregon, 1989. (invited symposium paper), 1620-1623.
  50. Hoffmann, G. W. and Grant, M. D. "When HIV Meets the Immune System: Network Theory, Alloimmunity, Autoimmunity and AIDS." in "Mathematical and Statistical Approaches to AIDS Epidemiology," C. Castillo-Chavez, Ed., in Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, vol. 83, Springer-Verlag, 1989, pp. 386-405.
  51. Hoffmann, G. W. and Grant, M. D. "On AIDS, alloimmunity and autoimmunity", in "Idiotype Networks in Biology and Medicine", A. D. M. E. Osterhaus and F. G. C. M. UytdeHaag, Eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990, pp. 295-299.
  52. Hoffmann, G. W., Kion, T. A. and Grant, M. D. "An Idiotypic Network Model of AIDS Immunopathogenesis" Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 88, 3060-3064 (1991).
  53. Hoffmann, G. W. and Tufaro, F. "Serological Distance Coefficients", Immunol. Letters, 22, 83-90, 1989.
  54. Davenport, M. R. and Hoffmann, G. W., "A Recurrent Neural Network using tri-state hidden neurons to orthogonalize the memory space". International Journal of Neural Systems, 1, 133-141 (1989).
  55. Hoffmann, G. W. and M. R. Davenport "A network that uses the outer product rule, hidden neurons and peaks in the energy landscape." in Proceedings of the 1990 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, New Orleans, May 1990, vol. 1, pp. 196-199.
  56. G. W. Hoffmann "A Response to Duesberg with Reference to an Idiotypic Network Model of AIDS Immunopathogenesis. Res. in Immunol.,141, 701-709, 1990.
  57. Kion, T. A. and Hoffmann, G. W. "Anti-HIV and anti-anti-MHC Antibodies in Alloimmune and Autoimmune Mice", Science, 253, 1138-1140, 1991.
  58. Hoffmann, G. W. "On specific T cell factors". Immunol. Today, 12, 465-466, 1991.
  59. Davenport, M. R. and Hoffmann, G. W. "Using hidden neurons with Hebbian learning in a bi-state Hopfield neural network. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Advances in Communication and Control Systems (Comcon 3), Victoria, B.C. Oct 16-18, 1991, in press.
  60. Hoffmann, G. W. and Kion, T. A. "On second symmetry and AIDS" in"Theoretical and Experimental Insights into Immunology", A. S. Perelson and G. Weisbuch, Eds., 1992, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 353-364.
  61. Süsal, C., Hoffmann, G. W., Daniel, V., Grant, M. D. and Opelz, G. "Complementarities and Network Interactions in AIDS". J. Autoimmunity, 6, 601-610, 1993.
  62. Hoffmann, G. W. and Kion, T. A. "On allogeneic lymphocytes as cofactors in AIDS pathogenesis and the concept of co-selection." In "New Concepts in AIDS Pathogenesis", L. Montagnier and Marie-Lise Gougeon, Eds., Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993, pp. 273-290.
  63. Hoffmann, G. W. "Coselection in Immune Network Theory and in AIDS Pathogenesis". Immunology and Cell Biology, 72, 338-346, 1994.
  64. Royer, S. T., Mathewson, D. J. and Hoffmann, G. W. "On network distance coefficients and network dynamics". J. Biol. Systems, 1995;3, 415-427.
  65. Hoffmann, G. W. "Niels Jerne, Immunologist, 1911-1994" Vaccine Research, 3, 173-174, 1994.
  66. Hoffmann, G. W. "The T Cell Receptor and AIDS Pathogenesis" Scandinavian J. Immunol., 41, 331-337, 1995.
  67. Grant, M. D., Whaley, M. D., Mayne, A., Hoffmann, G. W. and Ansari A. A. "Similar abnormalities of idiotype and immunoglobulin light chain expression and of cell-mediated cytotoxicity in HIV-infected humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques". Immunology and Cell Biology, 74, 38-44, 1996.
  68. Abdulaziz Al-Fahim and Geoffrey W. Hoffmann. Second symmetry in the Balb/c-C57BL/6 (B6) system, and anti-anti-self antibodies in old B6 mice. Immunology and Cell Biology, 76, 27-33, 1998.


  1. G. W. Hoffmann, J. G. Levy, and G. T. Nepom, (Eds.) Paradoxes in Immunology, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1986.
  2. G. W. Hoffmann and T. Hraba (Eds.), "Immunology and Epidemiology", Proceedings of a Workshop on Mathematical Immunology, Mogilany, Poland, February 1985, "Lecture Notes in Biomathematics", vol. 65 (S. Levin, Series editor), Springer-Verlag, 1986.


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Page last revised: March 17, 2009